Vaccines

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Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine

Who Should Get Vaccinated

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is recommended for people 12 years and older.

Learn more about how the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is making COVID-19 vaccine recommendations.

Who Should NOT Get Vaccinated

1. If you have had a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) or an immediate allergic reaction, even if it was not severe, to any ingredient in an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (such as polyethylene glycol), you should NOT get either of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.

 

2. If you had a severe or immediate allergic reaction after getting the first dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, you should NOT get a second dose of either of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.

 

3. A severe allergic reaction is one that needs to be treated with epinephrine or EpiPen or with medical care. 

4. An immediate allergic reaction means a reaction within 4 hours of exposure, including symptoms such as hives, swelling, or wheezing (respiratory distress).

How Well Does It Work

1. Based on evidence from clinical trials in people 16 years and older, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 95% effective at preventing laboratory-confirmed infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 in people who received two doses and had no evidence of being previously infected.

2. In clinical trials, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was also highly effective at preventing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection in adolescents 12–15 years old, and the immune response in people 12–15 years old was at least as strong as the immune response in people 16–25 years old.

3. The vaccine was also highly effective in clinical trials at preventing COVID-19 among people of diverse age, sex, race, and ethnicity categories and among people with underlying medical conditions.

4. Evidence shows mRNA COVID-19 vaccines offer similar protection in real-world conditions as they have in clinical trial settings―reducing the risk of COVID-19, including severe illness by 90% or more, among people who are fully vaccinated.

 

CDC will continue to provide updates as they learn more about how well the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine works in real-world conditions.

Side Effects

In the arm where you got the shot:

  • Pain

  • Redness

  • Swelling

Throughout the rest of your body:

  • Tiredness

  • Headache

  • Muscle pain

  • Chills

  • Fever

  • Nausea

These side effects happen within a day or two of getting the vaccine. They are normal signs that your body is building protection and should go away within a few days.

Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine

Who Should Get Vaccinated

The Moderna vaccine is recommended for people aged 18 years and older.

Learn more about how CDC is making COVID-19 vaccine recommendations.

Who Should NOT Get Vaccinated

1. If you have had a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) or an immediate allergic reaction, even if it was not severe, to any ingredient in an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (such as polyethylene glycol), you should NOT get an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.

2. If you had a severe or immediate allergic reaction after getting the first dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, you should NOT get a second dose of either of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech).

3. A severe allergic reaction is one that needs to be treated with epinephrine or EpiPen or with medical care. 

4. An immediate allergic reaction means a reaction within 4 hours of getting the shot, including symptoms such as hives, swelling, or wheezing (respiratory distress).

If you aren’t able to get an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, you may still be able to get a different type of COVID-19 vaccine. Get more information for people with allergies.

How Well Does It Work

1. Based on evidence from clinical trials, in people aged 18 years and older, the Moderna vaccine was 94.1% effective at preventing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection in people who received two doses and had no evidence of being previously infected.

2. The vaccine was also highly effective in clinical trials at preventing COVID-19 among people of diverse age, sex, race, and ethnicity categories and among people with underlying medical conditions.

CDC will continue to provide updates as they learn more about how well the Moderna vaccine works in real-world conditions.

Side Effects

In the arm where you got the shot:

  • Pain

  • Redness

  • Swelling

Throughout the rest of your body:

  • Tiredness

  • Headache

  • Muscle pain

  • Chills

  • Fever

  • Nausea

These side effects happen within a day or two of getting the vaccine. They are normal signs that your body is building protection and should go away within a few days.

Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine

Who Should Get Vaccinated

The J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine is recommended for people 18 years and older.

Learn more about how CDC is making COVID-19 vaccine recommendations.

Who Should NOT Get Vaccinated

1. If you have had a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) or an immediate allergic reaction, even if it was not severe, to any ingredient external icon in the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine (such as polysorbate), you should not get the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine.

2.A severe allergic reaction is one that needs to be treated with epinephrine or EpiPen or with medical care. 

An immediate allergic reaction means a reaction within 4 hours of exposure, including symptoms such as hives, swelling, or wheezing (respiratory distress).

If you aren’t able to get the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine, you may still be able to get a different type of COVID-19 vaccine. Get more information for people with allergies.

How Well Does It Work

1. In clinical trials, side effects were common within 7 days of getting vaccinated and were mostly mild. Some people had side effects that affected their ability to do daily activities.

2. Side effects were more common in people 18–59 years old compared to people 60 years and older.

There is a plausible causal relationship between J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine and a rare and serious adverse event—blood clots with low platelets (thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome, or TTS).

- It occurs at a rate of about 7 per 1 million vaccinated women between 18 and 49 years old.

- For women 50 years and older and men of all ages, this adverse event is even more rare.

Find the latest updates on J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine and blood clots with low platelets.

CDC will continue to provide updates as they learn more about the safety of the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine in real-world conditions.

Side Effects

In the arm where you got the shot:

  • Pain

  • Redness

  • Swelling

Throughout the rest of your body:

  • Tiredness

  • Headache

  • Muscle pain

  • Chills

  • Fever

  • Nausea

These side effects happen within a day or two of getting the vaccine. They are normal signs that your body is building protection and should go away within a few days.